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  • David Watts

Job site safety Analysis (JSA)

What is a JSA?

Job Safety Analysis (JSA) is a safety tool that can be used to define and control hazards associated with a certain process, job, or procedure. It is a systematic examination and documentation of every task within each job to identify health and safety hazards, and the steps to control each task.

How do I identify workplace hazards? A job hazard analysis is an exercise in detective work. Your goal is to discover the following:

  • What can go wrong?

  • What are the consequences?

  • How could it arise?

  • What are contributing factors

  • How likely is it that the hazard will occur?

  • To make your job hazard analysis useful, document the answers to these questions in a consistent manner. Describing a hazard in this way helps to ensure that your efforts to eliminate the hazard and implement hazard controls help target the most important contributors to the hazard.

    • Good hazard scenarios describe:

      • Where is is happening (environment),

      • Who or what can it happen to (exposure),

      • What is the hazard (trigger)

      • What can occur (consequence) and,

      • Any additional factors.

How do I correct or prevent hazards?

After reviewing your list of hazards with the technicians, consider what control methods will eliminate or reduce them. For more information on hazard control measures, see Appendix 1. The most effective controls are engineering controls that physically change a machine or work environment to prevent employee exposure to the hazard. The more reliable or less likely a hazard control can be circumvented, the better. If this is not feasible, administrative controls may be appropriate. This may involve changing how employees do their jobs. Discuss your recommendations with all employees who perform the job and consider their responses carefully. If you plan to introduce new or modified job procedures, be sure they understand what they are required to do and the reasons for the changes.

Hazard Control Measures

Information obtained from a job hazard analysis is useless unless hazard is useless unless hazard control measures recommended in the analysis are incorporated into the tasks. All hazard controls are equal. Some are more effective than others at reducing the risk.

The order of precedence and effectiveness of hazard control is the following:

  1. Engineering controls.

  2. Administrative controls.

  3. Personal protective equipment.

Engineering controls include the following:

  • Elimination/minimization of the hazard — Designing the facility, equipment, or process to remove the hazard, or substituting processes, equipment, materials, or other factors to lessen the hazard;

  • Enclosure of the hazard using enclosed cabs, enclosures for noisy equipment, or other means;

  • Enclosure of the hazard using enclosed cabs, enclosures for noisy equipment, or other means; and

  • Removal or redirection of the hazard such as with local and exhaust ventilation.

Administrative controls include the following:

  • Written operating procedures, work permits, and safe work practices;

  • Exposure time limitations (used most commonly to control temperature extremes and ergonomic hazards);

  • Monitoring the use of highly hazardous materials;

  • Alarms, signs, and warnings;

  • Buddy system; and

  • Training

Personal Protective Equipment

— such as respirators, hearing protection, protective clothing, safety glasses,

and hardhats— is acceptable as a control method in the following circumstances:

  • When engineering controls are not feasible or do not totally eliminate the hazard;

  • While engineering controls are being developed.

  • When safe work practices do not provide sufficient additional protection: and

  • During emergencies when engineering controls may not be feasible.

If the hazard cannot be eliminated entirely, the adopted control measures will likely be a combination of all three items instituted simultaneously.

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